Влияние триполифосфата натрия на здоровье человека

Влияние триполифосфата натрия на здоровье человека

To discuss the safety of sodium tripolyphosphate in food and detergent

I. Введение

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is an important inorganic chemical raw material, widely used in food, detergent, water treatment, and other fields. In the food industry, sodium tripolyphosphate is mainly used as quality improvers, water retaining agents, emulsifiers, and so on. However, with the wide application of sodium tripolyphosphate in food and detergent, its safety has also aroused people’s attention. This report will evaluate the safety of sodium tripolyphosphate, including its impact on human health, environmental impact, and other aspects.

Chemical properties and uses of sodium tripolyphosphate

(1) Chemical structure and properties of sodium tripolyphosphate
1. Chemical structure: Sodium tripolyphosphate is a linear polymer composed of three phosphate base groups and one sodium ion.
2. Physical properties: white crystalline powder, easily soluble in water, with high solubility and good stability.
3. Chemical properties: Sodium tripolyphosphate can be hydrolyzed into sodium dihydrogen phosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate in water, with strong buffering capacity and complexing force.
(2) It is widely used in food and detergent fields
1. Food industry: Sodium tripolyphosphate is mainly used as quality improvers, water retaining agents, emulsifiers, and so on in the food industry. It can improve the taste, texture, and stability of the food, and is widely used in the processing of meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, beverages, canned food, and other foods.
2. Detergent industry: Sodium tripolyphosphate is mainly used as an additive in the detergent industry, which can improve the decontamination capacity and stability of detergents. It can be combined with surfactants, alkaline substances, etc., and is widely used in laundry powder, dishwashing liquid, dishwashing detergent, and other products.
3. Water treatment industry: Sodium tripolyphosphate is mainly used as a corrosion inhibitor and scale inhibitor in the water treatment industry. It can be combined with other chemicals and is widely used in the treatment of industrial circulating cooling water, central air conditioning water, boiler water, and other systems.

The impact of sodium tripolyphosphate on human health

(1) Acute toxicity and chronic toxicity
1. Acute toxicity: The acute toxicity of sodium tripolyphosphate is low, and the oral lethal dose is 5-15g/kg. However, in high doses, it may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
2. Chronic toxicity: Long-term intake of sodium tripolyphosphate may cause damage to the kidneys, cardiovascular system, immune system, etc. In addition, it may also affect the absorption and metabolism of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which can affect bone health.
(2) Potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity
1. Carcinogenicity: There is no conclusive evidence that sodium tripolyphosphate is carcinogenic. However, some animal experiments and epidemiological studies have shown that long-term intake of sodium tripolyphosphate may increase the risk of certain cancers.
2. Genotoxicity: Some studies suggest that sodium tripolyphosphate may cause damage to DNA, which increases the risk of genetic mutations. However, these studies need further confirmation.
(3) Effects on the reproductive system and child development
1. Effects on the reproductive system: Some studies have shown that sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the development and function of the reproductive system. However, these studies need further confirmation.
2. Effects on child development: There is no conclusive evidence that sodium tripolyphosphate will affect the development of children. However, some animal experiments have shown that long-term intake of sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the growth and development of children and neurobehavior.

The environmental impact of sodium tripolyphosphate

(1) Impact on water ecosystem
1. Impact on aquatic organisms: Sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the growth, reproduction, and behavior of aquatic organisms. Some studies suggest that it may cause death and deformities in aquatic organisms.
2. Impact on water eutrophication: sodium tripolyphosphate may promote water eutrophication, resulting in algae blooms and affecting the balance of water ecosystems.
(ii) Behavior and ecotoxicity in soil
1. Impact on soil microorganisms: sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the number and types of soil microorganisms. Some studies suggest that it may inhibit the growth and metabolism of certain soil microbes.
2. Impact on soil nutrient cycling: sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the release and absorption of soil nutrients, thus affecting soil fertility and plant growth.

Methods and standards for evaluating the safety of sodium tripolyphosphate

(1) Relevant international and domestic regulations and standards
1. Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC): The maximum amount of sodium tripolyphosphate used in food is 0.5g/kg.
2. Chinese National Standard (GB 2760-2014): It stipulates that the maximum use of sodium tripolyphosphate in food is 0.5g/kg.
3. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): The maximum amount of sodium tripolyphosphate used in food is 0.5g/kg.
(ii) Toxicological and environmental risk assessment methods
1. Toxicological assessment: Evaluate the toxicity and safety of sodium tripolyphosphate through animal experiments and human tests.
2. Environmental risk assessment: To assess the migration, transformation, and toxicity of sodium tripolyphosphate in the environment through model prediction and field monitoring.
Six, frequently asked questions
(a) How much is the safe amount of sodium tripolyphosphate in food?
According to the provisions of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and the Chinese National Standard (GB 2760-2014), the maximum use of sodium tripolyphosphate in food is 0.5g/kg.
(b) How to reduce the environmental impact of sodium tripolyphosphate?
The following measures can be taken to reduce the environmental impact of sodium tripolyphosphate:
1. Rational use: According to actual needs, rational use of sodium tripolyphosphate to avoid excessive use.
2. Sewage treatment: Sewage containing sodium tripolyphosphate is treated and discharged after reaching the standard.
Soil remediation: The soil contaminated by sodium tripolyphosphate is repaired to restore the ecological function of the soil.
(3) Will sodium tripolyphosphate affect the absorption of nutrients in the human body?
At present, there is no conclusive evidence that sodium tripolyphosphate affects the absorption of nutrients in the human body. However, some studies have shown that long-term intake of sodium tripolyphosphate may affect the absorption and metabolism of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which can affect bone health. Therefore, a moderate intake of sodium tripolyphosphate is recommended.

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